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Public Diplomacy and
Nation Branding:
Literaturliste // Reading list.
For your own research.

Impressum


Prof. Dr. Oliver Zöllner
Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart
Stuttgart Media University, Germany


Course language: English


About the course:

In the context of globalisation and mediatisation, nation-states are increasingly seen as marketable, immaterial goods. This is where nation branding sets in. Like a global corporation or a commodified product, a nation-state can be 'branded', or so it seems.
A brand focuses on image, reputation, and certain values. A country with a bad image or reputation, or one standing for values refuted by the majority of relevant stakeholders, or a country with no image or reputation at all, will likely be left behind in the competition for access to monetary and intellectual resources, and may therefore lose out in the sociopolitical arena of influence and power. It's all about 'competitive identity', a perhaps more fashionable term.
Related to nation branding, the rather old, but recently rejuvenated concept of public diplomacy is looking at forming ties with other countries or societies by way of cultural-based public relations. This may present itself as an honest attempt at intercultural dialogue in some cases, or as just another way of self-appraisal in order to create a better image of one's country - or simply as propaganda, as critics say (and they're not always wrong).
In this course we will be looking into concepts of both public diplomacy and nation branding, and see how and where they overlap. Related areas such as marketing, public relations and propaganda will be covered, too. Students will develop research questions of their own and will present examples of how nation-states actively go about branding themselves, how such countries perform public diplomacy, with what kinds of messages, what types of actions, for what target groups, and why they do this.
#public_diplomacy #nation_branding #competitive_identity #marketing #PR #reputation_management #culture #analysis


Reading list:
[green = recommended key texts]

I. OVERVIEWS, INTRODUCTIONS, CONTEXT

a) Public diplomacy

Bjola, Corneliu / Holmes, Marcus (eds.) (2015): Digital diplomacy: Theory and practice. London, New York.
Busch-Janser, Sandra / Florian, Daniel (2010): Die neuen Diplomaten? Public Diplomacy und die Rolle von Kommunikationsagenturen in der Außenpolitik. In: Jens Tenscher / Heike Viehrig (eds.): Politische Kommunikation in internationalen Beziehungen. Münster, 215-233.
Castells, Manuel (2008): The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks, and global governance. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 78-93.
Cull, Nick (2017): Public diplomacy explained: What it means and why it matters. In: The Place Brand Observer. Internet resource: placebrandobserver.com/what-is-public-diplomacy/.
Deruda, Antonio (2015): The digital diplomacy handbook: How to use social media to engage with global audiences. SelfPub.
Fletcher, Tom (2016): Naked diplomacy: Statecraft in the digital age. New York.
Leonard, Mark [with Catherine Stead and Conrad Smewing] (2002): Public diplomacy. London. Internet resource: fpc.org.uk/fsblob/35.pdf.
McPhail, Thomas L. (2014): Global communication: Theories, stakeholders, and trends. 4th ed. Chichester.
Mihelj, Sabina (2011): Media nations: Communicating belonging and exclusion in the modern world. Basingstoke, New York.
Nye, Joseph S. (2004): Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York.
Nye, Joseph S. (2008): Public diplomacy and soft power. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 94-109.
Pamment, James (2012): What became of the New Public Diplomacy? Recent developments in British, US and Swedish public diplomacy policy and evaluation methods. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 7, No. 3, 313-336.
Pamment, James (2013): New public diplomacy in the 21st century. London, New York.
Rawnsley, Gary D. (2016): Introduction to "International Broadcasting and Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century". In: Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 42-45. Internet resource: www.cogitatiopress.com/ojs/index.php/mediaandcommunication/article/view/641.
Sandre, Andreas (2015): Digital diplomacy: Conversations on innovation in foreign policy. Lanham.
Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy / Verčič, Dejan (eds.) (2009): The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London.
Torres, José Filipe (2017): Digital Country Index 2017: Winners, losers and trends. In: The Place Brand Observer. Internet resource: placebrandobserver.com/digital-country-index-2017/.
Thussu, Daya Kishan (2006): International communication: Continuity and change. 2nd ed. London.
Snow, Nancy / Taylor, Philip M. (eds.) (2009): The Routledge handbook of public diplomacy. New York, London.
Zöllner, Oliver (2009): Internationaler Auslandsrundfunk. In: Hans-­Bredow-­Institut (ed.): Internationales Handbuch Medien. 2008/2009. 28. Aufl. Baden-Baden 2009, 175-183.

b) Nation branding

Anholt, Simon (2007): Competitive identity: The new brand management for nations, cities and regions. Basingstoke, New York.
Anholt, Simon (2010): Places: Identity, images and reputation. Basingstoke, New York.
Aronczyk, Melissa (2013): Branding the nation: The global business of national identity. Oxford, New York.
Bloomfield, Steve (ed.) (2016): How to make a nation: A Monocle guide. Berlin.
Dinnie, Keith (2016): Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice. 2nd ed. London, New York.
Govers, Robert / Go, Frank M. (2009): Place Branding: Glocal, virtual and physical identities, constructed, imagined and experienced. Basingstoke, New York.
Moilanen, Teemu / Rainisto, Seppo (2009): How to brand nations, cities and destinations: A planning book for place branding. Basingstoke, New York.
Olins, Wally (2002): Branding the nation - the historical context. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 241-248.
Olins, Wally (2005): Making a national brand. In: Jan Melissen (ed.): The new public diplomacy: Soft power in international relations. Basingstoke, New York, 169-179.
Olins, Wally / Hildreth, Jeremy (2011): Nation branding: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. In: Morgan, Nigel / Pritchard, Annette / Pride, Roger (eds.): Destination brands: Managing place reputation. 3rd ed. Oxford, 55-66.
Subramanian, Samanth (2017): How to sell a country: The booming business of nation branding. In: The Guardian Online (7 November), URL: www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/07/nation-branding-industry-how-to-sell-a-country.

II. THEORY DEVELOPMENT

Anholt, Simon (2006): Public diplomacy and place branding: Where's the link? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, 271-275.
Anholt, Simon (2008): Place branding: Is it marketing, or isn't it? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 1-6.
Anholt, Simon (2011): Beyond the nation brand: The role of image and identity in international relations. In: Journal of Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, No. 1, 6-12.
Aronczyk, Melissa (2007): New and improved nations: Branding national identity. In: Calhoun, Craig / Sennett, Richard (eds.): Practicing culture. London, New York, 140-180.
Aronczyk, Melissa (2013): Branding the nation: The global business of national identity. Oxford, New York.
Bohlin, Göran / Ståhlberg, Per (2010): Between community and commodity: Nationalism and nation branding. In: Roosvall, Anna / Salovaara-Moring, Inka (eds.): Communicating the nation: National topographies of global media landscapes. Göteborg, 79-101.
Bahrke, Johannes (2010): Auslandsrundfunk als strategisches Mittel europäischer Public Diplomacy im Nahen Osten. In: Tenscher, Jens / Viehrig, Henrike (eds.): Politische Kommunikation in internationalen Beziehungen. Berlin, Münster, 191-214.
Chapple-Sokol, Sam (2013): Culinary diplomacy: Breaking bread to win hearts and minds. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 8, No. 2, 161-183.
Cowan, Geoffrey / Arsenault, Amelia (2008): Moving from monologue to dialogue to collaboration: The three layers of public diplomacy. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 10-30.
Curtin, Patricia A. / Gaither, T. Kenn (2007): International public relations: Negotiating culture, identity, and power. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi.
Dinnie, Keith (2016): Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice. 2nd ed. London, New York.
Fan, Ying (2006): Branding the nation: What is being branded? In: Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 12, No. 1, 5-14.
Fan, Ying (2010): Branding the nation: Towards a better understanding. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 6, No. 2, 97-103.
Gertner, David / Kotler, Philip (2011): A place marketing and place branding perspective revisited. In: Morgan, Nigel / Pritchard, Annette / Pride, Roger (eds.): Destination brands: Managing place reputation. 3rd ed. Oxford, 33-53.
Govers, Robert / Go, Frank M. (2009): Place Branding: Glocal, virtual and physical identities, constructed, imagined and experienced. Basingstoke, New York.
Govers, Robert (2017): How to measure place branding impact through rankings and indices. In: The Place Brand Observer. Internet resource: http://placebrandobserver.com/measure-place-branding-impact-rankings-indices/.
Gilboa, Eytan (2000): Mass communication and diplomacy: A theoretical framework. In: Communication Theory, Vol. 10, No. 3, 275-309.
Gilboa, Eytan (2002): Global communication and foreign policy. In: Journal of Communication, Vol. 52, No. 4, 31-748.
Gregory, Bruce (2008): Public diplomacy: Sunrise of an academic field. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, 274-290.
Hanna, Sonya / Rowley, Jennifer (2008): An analysis of terminolgy use in place branding. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 61-75.
Horisberger, Marc (2002): Entstehung und Gestaltung von Nationenimages. Eine theoretische und empirische Analyse staatlicher Imagepflege im Ausland aus kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Diss., Univ. Freiburg (Schweiz).
Kaneva, Nadia (2011): Nation branding: Toward an agenda for critical research. In: International Journal of Communication, Vol. 5, 117-141. Internet resource: ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/download/704/514.
Kemming, Jan Dirk / Humborg, Christian (2010): Democracy and nation brand(ing): Friends or foes? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 6, 183-197.
Kotler, Philip / Gertner, David (2002): Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 249-261.
Kunczik, Michael (1989): Public Relations für Staaten. Die Imagepflege von Nationen als Aspekt der internationalen Kommunikation: Zum Forschungsstand. In: Max Kaase/Winfried Schulz (Hrsg.): Massenkommunikation. Theorien, Methoden, Befunde. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (= Sonderheft 30 der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie), 165-184.
Kunczik, Michael (1990): Die manipulierte Meinung. Nationale Image-Politik und internationale Public Relations. Köln.
Kunczik, Michael (2009): Transnational public relations by foreign governments. In: Krishnamurthy Sriramesh / Dejan Verčič (eds.): The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London, 769-794.
Leonard, Mark [with Catherine Stead and Conrad Smewing] (2002): Public diplomacy. London.
Lord, Carnes (2006): Losing hearts and minds? Public diplomacy and strategic influence in the age of terror. Westport, CT.
Mark, Simon (2008): A comparative study of the cultural diplomacy of Canada, New Zealand and India. Thesis (PhD), University of Auckland. Internet resource: https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/2292/2943/02whole.pdf?sequence=9.
Maaß, Kurt-Jürgen (Hrsg.) (2005): Kultur und Außenpolitik. Handbuch für Studium und Praxis. Baden-Baden.
Melissen, Jan (2006): How has place branding developed? Opinion piece. Internet resource: www.clingendael.nl/publications/2006/20060400_cdsp_art_melissen.pdf [Originally published in Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, No. 1].
O'Shaughnessy, John / O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas Jackson (2000): Treating the nation as a brand: Some neglected issues. In: Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 20, No. 1, 56-64.
Pamment, James (2013): Articulating influence: Toward a research agenda for interpreting the evaluation of soft power, public diplomacy and nation brands. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 1, 50-59.
Pamment, James (2015): Media influence, ontological transformation, and social change: Conceptual overlaps between development communication and public diplomacy. In: Communication Theory, Vol. 25, No.2, 188-207.
Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard / Merkelsen, Henrik (2012): The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 810-818.
Rockower, Paul S. (2012): Recipes for gastrodiplomacy. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1-12.
Schwan, Anna (2011): Werbung statt Waffen. Wie strategische Außenkommunikation die Außenpolitik verändert. Wiesbaden.
Seib, Philip (2009): Public diplomacy and journalism: Parallels, ethical issues, and practical concerns. In: American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 52, No. 2, 772-786.
Signitzer, Benno (2008): Public relations and public diplomacy: Some conceptual explorations. In: Zerfaß, Ansgar / van Ruler, Betteke / Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy (eds.): Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations. Wiesbaden, 205-218.
Skinner, Heather / Kubacki, Krzysztof (2007): Unravelling the complex relationship between nationhood, national and cultural identity, and place branding. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 305-316.
Srugies, Alice (2013): Comparative public diplomacy research: Potentials, challenges, implications. In: Diana Ingenhoff (ed.): Internationale PR-Forschung. Konstanz, München, 229-260.
Stiehl, Tim (2011): Public Diplomacy gleich Nation Branding? Eine theoretische Abgrenzung zweier Konzepte zur Außendarstellung von Staaten. Saarbrücken [eBook].
Szondi, György (2008): Public diplomacy and nation branding: Conceptual similarities and differences. The Hague. Internet resource: www.clingendael.nl/publications/2008/20081022_pap_in_dip_nation_branding.pdf
Van Dyke, Mark A. / Verčič, Dejan (2009): Public relations, public diplomacy, and strategic communication: An international model of conceptual convergence. In: Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy / Verčič, Dejan (eds.): The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London, 906-928.
van Ham, Peter (2001): The rise of the brand state: The postmodern politics of image and reputation. In: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 80, No. 5, 2–6.
van Ham, Peter (2008): Place branding: The state of the art. In: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No. 1, 126-149.
Wang, Jay (2006): Public diplomacy and global business. In: Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 27, No. 3, 41-49.
White, Candace / Radic, Danijela (2014): Comparative public diplomacy: Message strategies of countries in transition. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 459- 465.
Widler, Janine (2007): Nation branding: With pride against prejudice. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 144-150.
Yang, Aimei / Klyueva, Anna / Taylor, Maureen (2012): Beyond a dyadic approach to public diplomacy: Understanding relationships in a multipolar world. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 652-664.
Zerrillo, Philip C. / Thomas, Gregory Metz (2007): Developing brands and emerging markets: An empirical application. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 86-99.

III. CASE STUDIES

a) Europe

Anholt, Simon (2007): 'Brand Europe' - Where next? In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 115-119.
Auer, Claudia / Srugies, Alice (2013): Public diplomacy in Germany. CPD Perspectives on Public Diplomacy, Paper 5. Internet resource: uscpublicdiplomacy.org/publications/perspectives/CPDPerspectives_Paper_5_2013_German.pdf
Aveline, Julie (2006): Branding Europe? Branding, design and post-national loyalties. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 2, 334-340.
Avgerinos, Katherine P. (2009): Russia's public diplomacy effort: What the Kremlin is doing and why it's not working. In: Journal of Public and International Affairs, Vol. 20, 115-132. Internet resource: www.princeton.edu/jpia/past-issues-1/2009/6.pdf.
Brünner, Thomas (2011): Public Diplomacy im Westen. Die Presseagentur Panorama DDR informiert das Ausland. Frankfurt am Main.
Claver Ruiz, María (2015): Explaining Spain's Casas: An instrument of networked public diplomacy. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 10, No. 2, 215-224.
Davis Cross, Mai’a K. / Melissen, Jan (eds.) (2013): European public diplomacy: Soft power at work. Basingstoke, New York.
Gilmore, Fiona (2002): A country - can it be repositioned? Spain - the success story of country branding. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 281-293.
Hall, Derek (2002): Brand development, tourism and national identity: The re-imaging of former Yugoslavia. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 323-334.
Heller, Steven (2008): Iron fists: Branding the 20th-century totalitarian state. London, Berlin.
Horisberger, Marc (2002): Entstehung und Gestaltung von Nationenimages. Eine theoretische und empirische Analyse staatlicher Imagepflege im Ausland aus kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Diss., Univ. Freiburg (Schweiz).
Jansen, Sue Curry (2008): Designer nations: Neo-liberal nation branding – Brand Estonia. In: Social Identities, Vol. 14, No. 1, 121-142.
Kaneva, Nadia (ed.) (2012): Branding post-communist nations: Marketizing national identities in the "new" Europe. New York, London.
Kaneva, Nadia / Popescu, Delia (2014): "We are Romanian, not Roma": Nation branding and postsocialist discourses of alterity. In: Communication, Culture and Critique, Vol. 7, No. 4, 506-523.
Kapuscinska, Katarzyna (2017): Nation Branding Österreichs. Eine Untersuchung der "Marke Österreich" in Polen. Hamburg.
Kemming, Jan Dirk (2009): Nation brand management in political contexts: Public diplomacy for Turkey's EU accession. Diss., Univ. Gießen. Internet resource: geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2009/7248/pdf/KemmingJan_2009_09_18.pdf.
Kemming, Jan Dirk / Sandikci, Özlem (2007): Turkey's EU accession as a question of nation brand image. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 31-41.
Krause, Till (2008): 'Amerrrika ist wunderrrbarrr': Promotion of Germany through Radio Goethe’s cultural export of German popular music to North America. In: Popular Music, Vol. 27, No. 2, 225-242.
Litvinsky, Marina (2011): European Union public diplomacy: The need for a new frame. Saarbrücken.
Martinović, Stjepo (2002): Branding Hrvatska - a mixed blessing that might succeed: The advantage of being unrecognisable. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 315-322.
Nation Branding Luxemburg (2015). Internet resource: www.nationbranding.lu/de/
Ostrowski, Daniel (2010): Die Public Diplomacy der deutschen Auslandsvertretungen weltweit. Theorie und Praxis der deutschen Auslandsöffentlichkeitsarbeit. Wiesbaden.
Pamment, James (2015): 'Putting the GREAT back into Britain': National identity, public-private collaboration and transfers of brand equity in 2012's global promotional campaign. In: The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol. 17, No. 2, 260-283.
Rius Ulldemolins, Joaquium / Martín Zamorano, Mariano (2015): Spain's nation branding project Marca España and its cultural policy: The economic and political instrumentalization of a homogeneous and simplified cultural image. In: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 21, No. 1, 20-40.
Simons, Greg (2014): Russian public diplomacy in the 21st century: Structure, means and message. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 440-449.
Sudjic, Deyan (2006): The edifice complex: How the rich and powerful shape the world. London. [Chapter 6: Inventing a nation, 155-188].
Surowiec, Paweł (2017): Nation branding, public relations and soft power: Corporatising Poland. London, New York.
Swedish Institute (2009): Brand Sweden: The road to an updated image of Sweden abroad. Stockholm: Swedish Institute. Internet resource: paprikash.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/brand-sweden.pdf.
Szondi, György (2007): The role and challenges of country branding in transition countries: The Central and Eastern European experience. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 8-20.
Vickers, Rhiannon (2004): The new public diplomacy in Britain and Canada. In: British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol. 6, No. 2, 182-194.
Visconti, Luca M. / Üçok Hughes, Mine / Bagramian, Ruben (2012): Diversity appreciated? A visual longitudinal analysis of Ukraine's nation branding campaigns. In: Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 40, 935-936. Internet resource (extended abstract): www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/v40/acr_v40_12523.pdf.
Zöllner, Oliver (2006): A quest for dialogue in international broadcasting: Germany's public diplomacy targeting Arab audiences. In: Global Media and Communication, Vol. 2, No. 2, 160-182.
Zöllner, Oliver (2009): German public diplomacy: The dialogue of cultures. In: Snow, Nancy / Taylor, Philip M. (eds.): Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. New York, London, 262-269.

b) The Americas

Bayles, Martha (2014): Through a screen darkly: Popular culture, public diplomacy, and America's image abroad. New Haven, CT.
Djerejian, Edward P. (2003): Changing minds, winning peace: A new strategic directive for U.S. public diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim world. Report of the advisory group on public diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim world, U.S. House of Representatives. Internet resource: www.state.gov/documents/organization/24882.pdf.
Elter, Andreas (2008): Auswärtige Kulturpolitik und Propaganda in den USA. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Heft 11, S. 32-38. Internet resource: http://www.bpb.de/apuz/31364/auswaertige-kulturpolitik-und-propaganda-in-den-usa?p=all
Fullerton, Jami et al. (2007): Attitudes towards American brands and Brand America. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 205-212.
Garbacz Rawson, Elizabeth A. (2007): Perceptions of the United States of America: Exploring the political brand of a nation. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 213-221.
Huijgh, Ellen (2013): The ebbs and flows of Canada’s public diplomacy with a domestic foundation. In: International Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, 147-169.
Huijgh, Ellen / Byrne, Caitlin (2012): Opening the windows on diplomacy: A comparison of the domestic dimension of public diplomacy in Canada and Australia. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 7, No. 4, 395-420.
Jäger, Thomas / Viehrig, Henrike (eds.) (2008): Die amerikanische Regierung gegen die Weltöffentlichkeit? Theoretische und empirische Analysen der Public Diplomacy zum Irakkrieg. Wiesbaden.
Manheim, Jarol B. (1994): Strategic public diplomacy and American foreign policy. New York.
Morrison, Matthew B. (2012): U.S. public diplomacy: Background and current issues. New York.
Niesing, Eva (2013): Latin America's potential in nation branding: A closer look at Brazil's, Chile's and Colombia's practices. Hamburg.
Potter, Evan (2003): Canada and the new public diplomacy. In: International Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1, 43-64.
Servaes, Jan (2012): Soft power and public diplomacy: The new frontier for public relations and international communication between the US and China. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, 643-651.
Sinha Roy, Ishita (2007): Worlds apart: Nation-branding on the National Geographic Channel. In: Media, Culture and Society, Vol. 29, No. 4, 569-592.
Tomlin, Gregory M. (2016): Murrow's cold war: Public diplomacy for the Kennedy administration. Lincoln.
U.S. Department of State (2000): Consolidation of USIA into the State Department: An assessment after one year. Collingdale.
Vickers, Rhiannon (2004): The new public diplomacy in Britain and Canada. In: British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol. 6, No. 2, 182-194.

c) Asia, Australia and Oceania

Aharoni, Ido / Grinstein, Amir (2017): How to (re)position a country? A case study of the power of micro-marketing [on Israel]. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 13, 1-15.
Agawa, Naoyuki (2008): Japan does soft power: Strategy and effectiveness of its public diplomacy in the United States. In: Yasushi Watanabe / David L. McConnel (eds.): Soft power superpowers: Cultural and national assets of Japan and the United States. Armonk, NY, 224-241.
Bahrke, Johannes (2010): Auslandsrundfunk als strategisches Mittel europäischer Public Diplomacy im Nahen Osten. In: Jens Tenscher / Heike Viehrig (eds.): Politische Kommunikation in internationalen Beziehungen. Münster, 191-214.
Ber, Reut / Yarchi, Moran / Galily, Yair (2017): The sporting arena as a public diplomacy battlefield: The Palestinian attempt to suspend Israel from FIFA. In: Journal of International Communication, Vol. 23, Internet resource: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13216597.2017.1327449.
Berkowitz, Pere et al. (2007): Brand China: Using the 2008 Olympic Games to enhance China's image. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 164-178.
Broinowski, Alison (2012): Soft power, smart power or public diplomacy? Australia fumbles. In: Global Asia, Vol. 7, No. 3, 41-45. Internet resource: www.globalasia.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/85.pdf
Byrne, Caitlin / Hall, Rebecca (2011): Australia's international education as public diplomacy: Soft power potential. In: Discussion Papers In Diplomacy, Netherlands Institute Of International Relations 'Clingendael' and Antwerp University, No 121. Internet resource: www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20110700_cdsp_discussion_paper_cbryne_rhall.pdf.
Chang, Tsan-Kuo / Lin, Fen (2014): From propaganda to public diplomacy: Assessing China's international practice and its image, 1950–2009. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 450-458.
Chen, Ni (2012): Branding national images: The 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, 2010 Shanghai World Expo, and 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games. In: Public Relations Review, Vol. 38, issue 5, 731-745.
Cooper Ramo, Joshua (2007): Brand China. London. Internet resource: fpc.org.uk/fsblob/827.pdf
D'Hooghe, Ingrid (2007): The rise of China's public diplomacy. The Hague. Internet resource: www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20070700_cdsp_paper_hooghe.pdf
Edwards, Lee / Ramamurthy, Anandi (2017): (In)Credible India? A critical analysis of India's nation branding. In: Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 10, No. 2, 322-341.
Finlay, Christopher J. / Xin, Xin (2010): Public diplomacy games: A comparative study of American and Japanese responses to the interplay of nationalism, ideology and Chinese soft power strategies around the 2008 Beijing Olympics. In: Sport in Society, Vol. 13, No. 5, 876-900.
Fleischer, Florian / Füser, Katharina / Isermeyer, Johanna (2014): Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten. In: Global Media Journal (German Edition), Vol. 4, No. 1, 1-26. Internet resource: www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-29830/GMJ7_Fleischer_Fueser_Isermeyer_final.pdf.
Fullerton, Jami / Kendrick, Alice / Wallis, Courtney (2008): Brand Borat? Americans' reaction to a Kazakhstani place branding campaign. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4, 159-168.
Govers, Robert (2012): Brand Dubai and its competitors in the Middle East: An image and reputation analysis. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 8, 48-57.
Gurk, Christoph (2017): Kommando Kimchi. Wenn Staaten ihren Ruf bessern wollen, holen sie sich die Liebe inzwischen oft durch den Magen: Sie propagieren weltweit ihre Landesspezialitäten und helfen einheimischen Köchen im Ausland. Wie gut das funktioniert, zeigt das Beispiel Südkorea. In: SZ-Magazin, No. 22 (2 June), 46-49.
Hahn, Oliver (2008): Arabische Öffentlichkeit und Satellitenrundfunk. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 11, 26-31. Internet resource: http://www.bpb.de/apuz/31362/arabische-oeffentlichkeit-und-satellitenrundfunk?p=all
Hartig, Falk (2012): Cultural diplomacy with Chinese characteristics: The case of Confucius Institutes in Australia. In: Communication, Politics & Culture, Vol. 45, 256-276. Internet resource: www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=lss0puqtrbsl1.
Hartig, Falk (2013): Panda Diplomacy: The cutest part of China's public diplomacy. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 8, No. 1, 49-78.
Hartig, Falk (2016): Chinese public diplomacy: The rise of the Confucius Institutes. London, New York.
Huijgh, Ellen / Byrne, Caitlin (2012): Opening the windows on diplomacy: A comparison of the domestic dimension of public diplomacy in Canada and Australia. In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 7, No. 4, 395-420.
Kerrigan, Finola / Shivanandan, Jyotsna / Hede, Anne-Marie (2012): Nation branding: A critical appraisal of Incredible India. In: Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 32, No. 3, 319–327.
Koh, Buck Song (2011): Brand Singapore: How nation branding built Asia's leading global city. Singapore.
Kluver, Randolph (2014): The sage as strategy: Nodes, networks, and the quest for geopolitical power in the Confucius Institute. In: Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 7, No. 2, 192-209.
Kretschmer, Lisa-Maria (2017): Imagine there is war and it is tweeted live – an analysis of digital diplomacy in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In: Global Media Journal (German Edition), Vol. 7, No. 1, 1-23. Internet resource: www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/dbt_derivate_00038860/GMJ13_Kretschmer_final.pdf.
Loo, Theresa / Davies, Gary (2006): Branding China: The ultimate challenge in reputation management? In: Corporate Reputation Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, 198-210.
Melki, Jad / Jabado, May (2016): Mediated public diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The synergistic use of terrorism, social media and branding. In: Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 92-103. Internet resource: www.cogitatiopress.com/ojs/index.php/mediaandcommunication/article/view/432.
McGray, Douglas (2002): Japan's gross national cool. In: Foreign Policy, No. 130 (May/June), 44-54.
McGray, Douglas (2014): Japan's gross national cool. In: Allen, Matthew (ed.): Globalizing Japanese popular culture: The coolness of Japan? London, New York, 7-17.
Morgan, Nigel / Pritchard, Annette / Piggott, Rachel (2002): New Zealand, 100% pure: The creation of a powerful niche destination brand. In: Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 335-354.
Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee (2007): Branding Thailand: Correcting the negative image of sex tourism. In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 3, 21-30.
Pant, Dipak R. (2005): A place brand strategy for the Republic of Armenia: 'Quality of context' and 'sustainability' as competitive advantage. In: Place Branding, Vol. 1, No. 3, 273-282.
Park, Se Jung / Lim, Yon Soo (2014): Information networks and social media use in public diplomacy: A comparative analysis of South Korea and Japan. In: Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 24, No. 1, 79-98.
Sun, Wanning (2014): Mediatization with Chinese characteristics: Political legitimacy, public diplomacy and the new art of propaganda. In: Knut Lundby (ed.): Mediatization of communication. Berlin, Boston, 87-105.
Thussu, Daya Kishan (2013): Communicating India's soft power: Buddha to Bollywood. Basingstoke, New York.
Tsutomu, Sugiura (2008): Japan's creative industries: Culture as a source of soft power in the industrial sector. In: Yasushi Watanabe / David L. McConnel (eds.): Soft power superpowers: Cultural and national assets of Japan and the United States. Armonk, NY, 128-153.

d) Africa

Amujo, Olusanmi / Otubanjo, Olutayo (2012): Leveraging rebranding of 'unattractive' nation brands to stimulate post-disaster tourism. In: Tourist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 87-105.
Jacob, Udo-Udo Jacob (2016): Target Gutahuka: The UN’s strategic information intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In: Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 104-119. Internet resource: www.cogitatiopress.com/ojs/index.php/mediaandcommunication/article/view/583.
Fiedler, Anke / Frère, Marie-Soleil (2016): "Radio France Internationale" and "Deutsche Welle" in Francophone Africa: International broadcasters in a time of change. In: Communication, Culture and Critique, Vol. 9, No. 1, 68-85.
le Pere, Garth (2017): Ubuntu as foreign policy: The ambiguities of South Africa's brand image and identity. In: Strategic Review for Southern Africa, Vol. 39, No. 1, 93-115. Internet resource: www.up.ac.za/media/shared/85/Strategic%20Review/Vol%2039(1)/pp-93-115-g-le-pere.zp121528.pdf.
Murai, Yasuko (2011): 'Alive with Possibility': Brand South Africa and the discursive construction of South African national identity. MSc dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science. Internet resource: www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/mediaWorkingPapers/MScDissertationSeries/2010/2nd/Murai.pdf.
Qobo, Mzukisi (2017): [South] Africa's foreign policy and nation branding: Regional leadership and its discontens. In: Strategic Review for Southern Africa, Vol. 39, No. 1, 9-28. Internet resource: www.up.ac.za/media/shared/85/Strategic%20Review/Vol%2039(1)/pp-9-28-m-qobo.zp121518.pdf.
Schoeman, Maxi / Thuynsma, Heather (2017): The nation brand and its strategic reflection. Journal special focus: Introduction. In: Strategic Review for Southern Africa, Vol. 39, No. 1, 3-8. Internet resource: www.up.ac.za/media/shared/85/Strategic%20Review/Vol%2039(1)/pp-3-8-brand-sa-introduction.zp121516.pdf.


» Helpful Internet resources for locating relevant books and articles:
» Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog
» Center on Public Diplomacy, University of Southern California (USA) - and especially their PD Hub with loads of resources to check out!
» Journal: 'Public Diplomacy Magazine'
» Journal: 'Place Branding and Public Diplomacy" (ISSN 1751-8040)
» Online magazine: 'The Place Brand Observer': Place Branding Insights, Strategies, Stories, Examples
» Online magazine: 'The Public Diplomat'
» The Foreign Policy Centre (UK)
» IdentityLab (Germany)
» Institute for Cultural Diplomacy (Germany)
» The Digital Country Index
» Anholt-GfK Roper's Nation Brands Index
» Nation-Branding.info: "Everything about Nation Branding and Country Brands"
» Research Center Nation Branding der Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden



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